Menstruation is society's biggest taboo that must be normalized and discussed!

A woman's reproductive system includes the standard and essential process of menstruation. But the subject is still shrouded in stigma and secrecy for many people. Understanding the science behind menstruation and women's hygiene products can help women take control of their health and well-being by demystifying this phenomenon. Today, we will explore the complex biological processes the female body goes through to prepare for the monthly menstrual cycle.

The Menstrual Cycle: A Cyclical Journey

The menstrual cycle is a recurring process that typically spans 28 days, although it can vary from woman to woman. This cycle is regulated by complex interactions between hormones and various body systems, including the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovaries, and uterus.

Phase 1: Menstruation

The cycle begins with menstruation, commonly known as a period. During this phase, the lining of the uterus (endometrium), which thickened in the previous process in preparation for a potential pregnancy, is shed. This shedding results in vaginal bleeding, typically lasting 3-7 days. While this phase can be uncomfortable, it is a necessary part of the reproductive process.


Every person's menstrual cycle is unique. An average period cycle is around 28 days, but can range from 21 - 35 days and still be considered normal.

Phase 2: Follicular Phase

The follicular phase begins after the menstrual cycle. Follicle-stimulating hormone, released by the pituitary gland during this stage, prompts the ovaries to develop 5 to 20 tiny sacs known as follicles. A developing egg (oocyte) is found inside each follicle. During ovulation, just one of these follicles will develop into maturity and ultimately be expelled.


During a menstrual period, the average amount of blood lost is around 30-40 milliliters, and only the perfect women's hygiene products can help cope during your cycle. 

Phase 3: Ovulation

A luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in the middle of the menstrual cycle causes ovulation. The mature follicle bursts during ovulation, releasing the egg into the fallopian tube. If there is sperm, now is the best moment for fertilization. Timing is essential because the egg only has a 12 to 24-hour life span.


Hormones are crucial to the menstrual cycle. Estrogen & progesterone levels fluctuate throughout the cycle, leading to physical and emotional changes.

Phase 4: Luteal Phase

The empty follicle develops into a structure known as the corpus luteum following ovulation. This organ secretes hormones, principally progesterone, that help the uterine lining get ready for the possibility of a fertilized egg implanting.


High-stress levels can disrupt the menstrual cycle. This is due to the influence of stress hormones on the hypothalamus, which regulates the menstrual cycle.

Hormones at Play

Hormonal balance is crucial to a regular and healthy lifestyle for a woman. Throughout the menstrual cycle, several hormones play vital roles:

  • Estrogen: Produced primarily by the ovaries, estrogen thickens the uterine lining during the follicular phase.

  • Progesterone: This hormone, produced by the corpus luteum, maintains the uterine lining during the luteal phase. If pregnancy occurs, progesterone levels remain high.

  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH prompts the ovaries to prepare follicles for potential ovulation.

  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH triggers ovulation, releasing the mature egg.

  • The Role of the Uterus

    This pear-shaped organ plays a central role in menstruation. It consists of three layers: the innermost lining (endometrium), the middle muscular layer (myometrium), and the outermost layer (perimetrium). The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes, thickening during the follicular phase to prepare for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the endometrial lining is shed during menstruation.

    The Menstrual Cycle and Fertility

    Understanding the menstrual cycle is essential for reproductive health and those trying to conceive or practicing contraception. Identifying the fertile window—usually the days leading up to and including ovulation—is crucial for couples aiming to become parents. Conversely, contraception methods often rely on preventing ovulation or fertilization during this fertile window.

    Empowering Women with Knowledge

    The science behind menstruation empowers women to make informed decisions about their reproductive health. It fosters a deeper connection with one's body and encourages open conversations about menstruation, breaking down stigma and taboos. By appreciating the intricate biological dance of hormones and bodily systems, women can better navigate their reproductive journey confidently and self-assuredly. Menstruation is not just a monthly inconvenience; it's a remarkable testament to the complexity and beauty of the female body.

    While you are on your way to exploring your menstruation journey, it is highly recommended to check out the best beginner menstrual cup by Savvy and experience a comfortable and hassle-free period!